2004 – Toe-walking attributable to venous malformation of the calf muscle. Clinical Orthopaedics. – Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD
Abstract: Soft tissue venous malformations of muscles may produce musculoskeletal deformities caused by contracture of the in- volved muscle. When the venous malformation involves the flexor muscles of the leg, equinus deformity and toe-walking may occur. Three patients with unilateral toe-walking secondary to venous mal- formation of the calf muscle, showing the classic presentation of this unusual condition, are presented. Several methods of treating the de- formity and the underlying venous malformation are discussed, and the current literature on intramuscular venous malformations, includ- ing their natural history, diagnoses, treatment options, and outcomes, is reviewed. Based on our experience and review of the literature, percutaneous sclerotherapy may be a viable option for treatment of venous malformations of the calf musculature that result in a toe- walking deformity.